Morals By Agreement Gauthier


The second element of a contradictory theory characterizes potential contractors. There are two sub-parts: first, entrepreneurs have minimum wishes or preferences, and second, entrepreneurs have the ability to interact rationally with others. Contractual theories (unlike contractual theories) include a high level of motivation to enter into (and maintain) agreements. They avoid considering that people have preferences for moral behavior as such to understand rules of morality or justice in a rational interest. Since the interests of individuals do not necessarily include the well-being of others, the main challenge of the contract is to show that it would be rational to be moral, even in the absence of such different preferences. These self-guided preferences are referred to as “non-tuists” (Gauthier 1986, 87). There is, however, reason to believe that limiting contractors` preferences to non-tuist preferences alone is neither necessary nor useful in understanding morality. One reason is that such a restriction of preferences means that real people are not willing to stick to bargains, assuming they do not have such narrow preferences (Hubin, 1991). On the other hand, it may be possible to exploit individuals for their compassions (Dimock 1999). This is especially a problem for women, as Dimock points out, because in most cultures, women are trained from an early age by gender norms and gender roles to prefer the well-being of others to their own. Negative tuist preferences represent a challenge other than a kind of moral skepticism for theorists who would exclude them or those who would place them in a negotiation theory (Superson 2009).

The former group includes Rawls and Gauthier, who argued that negative tuist preferences (envy, jealousy, spite, revenge) make collaboration impossible for mutual benefit and are therefore irrational (Rawls 1971, 142-150, 530-534; Gauthier 1986, 311, 329). But this reaction greatly limits the scope of the theory, as such emotions are common. The latter group faces the challenge of showing how mutual benefit overcomes these negative and different emotions. “Contractarianism” refers to both a political theory of the legitimacy of political authority and a moral theory about the origin or legitimate content of moral norms. The political theory of authority asserts that the legitimate authority of the government from the approval of the government, whether the form and content of this approval of the idea of the treaty or mutual agreement. The moral theory of contractism asserts that moral norms build their normative force from the idea of the treaty or reciprocal agreement. Contracts are skeptical of the possibility of understanding morality or political authority, either in the divine will or in a perfect ideal of human nature.

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